Wular

1-Project Area:-

1.1  An Introduction:

Wullar Lake is located 34 km northwest of Srinagar
city at an altitude of 1,530 mts  a.m.s.l
between 34
020’ N latitude and 70024’ E longitude. It is elliptical in shape with a
maximum length of 16 km and breadth of 7.6 km. The lake is surrounded by high
mountainous ranges on the northeastern and northwestern sides, which drain
their runoff through various nallahs, prominent being Erin and
Madumati  On the eastern and
southern  sides are the low lying areas
of Sonawari which used to get inundated almost every year until numerous
criss-crossing embankments were constructed along River Jhelum. The lake area
thus reclaimed has in the recent past been brought under cultivation of paddy
and plantations of willow, poplar and fruit trees. On the western side in the
Sopore-Watlab section, lowlying areas have also been brought under paddy
cultivation. On the eastern side of the lake is an island which was raised and
shaped by a famous ruler of Kashmir, Zainul-Abidin, who ruled Kashmir from
1420-1470 AD. Wullar is a shallow lake with a maximum depth of 5.8m. The lake
area has not been properly investigated although several estimates exist. As per
the Directory of Wetlands of India (MoEF, 1990), the area of the lake is 189 sq
km. The Survey of India maps of 1978 indicate the lake area to be only 58.7 km
in winter. Taking into consideration, the highest flood level of 1,579 m, the
present lake area has been computed to be 173 sq km. The revenue records,
however, indicate the lake area to be 130 sq km.

 

 Wullar Lake forms a part of River
Jhelum basin which is a sub basin of Indus River(Map 1.2). The Jhelum basin
extends to 12,777 sq km of which six watersheds with an area of 1,144 sq km
drain directly into the lake forming its direct catchments  The entire Jhelum basin and the direct
catchments are highly degraded and contribute to heavy load of silt into Wullar
lake, leading to its shrinkage and reduced water depth. The lake is surrounded
by 31 villages within districts of Bandipora and Baramulla, with a population
of 10,964 households as per 2001 census (which must have multiplied at least
three fold over the past one decade). The inhabitants of these villages depend
directly or indirectly on the lake resources for their livelihoods. More than
half of the lakeshore population falls below poverty line with limited access
to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities. Twenty six villages of nomadic
origin inhabit the hills around the lake.

 

Wullar with its associated wetlands supports rich biodiversity and
provides important habitats for migratory water birds within Central Asian
Flyway. The lake is the largest fisheries resource in Kashmir Valley supporting
livelihoods of large human population living along its fringes. Regulation of
hydrological regimes of the basin through Wullar and its associated wetlands
protects the Kashmir valley from floods as well as maintains flows to support
agriculture and hydropower generation. The wetland also generates revenue to
the state government through harvesting of water chestnuts, which grow
profusely in the lake area. The catchments of the lake support coniferous
forests, alpine pastures and orchards, adding to the natural grandeur of the
wetland. Recognizing importance of the wetland for its biodiversity and
socioeconomic values, the lake was designated by India as a wetland of
international importance under the Ramsar Convention in 1990.

1.2 Executive Summary:

 Wullar Lake,
the largest freshwater lake within River Jhelum basin plays a significant role
in the hydrograph of the Kashmir valley by acting as a huge absorption basin
for floodwaters. The lake with its associated wetlands is an important habitat
for migratory water birds within Central Asian Flyway and supports rich
biodiversity. It is a major fishery resource in the valley supporting a large
population living along its fringes. The wetland also generates revenue to the
state government through fisheries and auctioning of water chestnut, fodder,
and other economically important species. The catchment of the lake supports
coniferous forests, and alpine pastures adding to the natural beauty and
biodiversity of the wetland area. Recognizing importance of the wetland for its
biodiversity and socio economic values, the Wular Lake was designated as a
Wetland of International Importance under Ramsar.

 

Convention in 1990, the processes and functions of
Wular Lake are inextricably linked with the hydrological regimes of River
Jhelum. Almost all the lakes located within different altitudinal gradients are
directly or indirectly interlinked with River Jhelum. The impacts within the
river system upstream and downstream are bound to have impacts on overall
ecological functioning and socio-economic benefits derived from these wetlands.
An integrated water resources management approach recognizing
interconnectedness of wetlands with their catchments is imperative for their
sustainable management. Sectoral developmental activities have, however, failed
to recognize the immense role of the Wullar Lake leading to its degradation.
Revenue centric approaches followed aimed at short term economic gains without
realizing their long-term implications on the overall sustainability of the
lake ecosystem. The developmental activities in the upstream reaches have
further created severe downstream impacts, thereby threatening the tenability
of the overall ecological and economic efficiency of resource utilization.
Despite wetland based livelihoods, particularly tourism being the major sectors
of economic growth in the valley, no attempts have been made for the management
of Wullar with Jhelum basin into developmental planning. The major thrust has
been on the Dal Lake ignoring Wullar although the largest wetland within Jhelum
basin. Although the state government has recently constituted Wullar and
Mansbal Development Authority under aegis of Department of Tourism, the current
institutional arrangements are ineffective coordinated actions for integrated
management. Local communities, central to lake management have been ignored in
the planning and implementation process.

 

        Lack
of understanding of the values and functions of Wullar Lake and its associated
wetlands have led to conversion of its large area for agriculture, settlements,
plantations and other developmental activities. All along the periphery,
particularly in Sonawari, the wetlands were drained through government
sponsored programmes for agriculture development. Bunds were built up at
various lake contour levels for the protection of crops and settlements against
floods thereby fragmenting the lake ecosystem and changing its ecological
character. Measures undertaken for flood protection, without considering
connectivity of wetland and the role of Wullar in hydrological regimes, have
led to quick drain ability and impairment of their capacity to moderate high
flows and ability to retain water during the lean season. Catchment degradation
leading to soil erosion and its deposition in the lake has further decreased
water absorption capacity of the lake ecosystem. The increasing demand for
firewood has brought a vast area of the lake under willow plantations mainly
through the government sponsored schemes which have contributed to shrinkage of
the lake area, degradation of resource base and overall poverty of marginalized
communities depending on these resources for sustenance.

 

As per details given in the Comprehensive
Management Plan for Wullar Lake (2007-11) prepared by Wetlands International,
South Asia, collation of existing information augmented through rapid surveys,
intensive community consultations and participatory resource  appraisals indicated the following:-

 

·        
 The area of lake as per topo sheets of 1911 was 217.8 sq km which
includes 58 sq km of associated marshes. The area was reduced from157.74 sq. km
to 86.71 sq km during 1911 to 2007. Overall there was reduction the lake area
by 45% mainly due to conversion for agriculture (28%) and plantation (17%).
Further associated marshes were reduced by 70% again due to conversions for
agriculture and settlements.     

 

·        
The role of Wullar Lake to regulate flows has
drastically reduced due to reclamation, siltation and interventions to enhance
drain-ability of water for up-stream flood mitigation. The lake presently
builds up storage during winter months when the flows are in the lean phase and
the high flows during summer are untapped. This situation has led to increased
floods and droughts in the valley. This has also enhanced idling period of the
river hydro-power projects located downstream of Wular.

 

·        
One fifth of the water holding capacity has been
lost over last three decades due to siltation from degraded catchments and
wetland conversions for agriculture and willow plantations.

 

·        
 Direct discharge of solid and liquid wastes from the settlements all
along River Jhelum mainly from Srinagar city and other towns in the upstream
area have led to degradation of water quality and health hazards to the
communities living around the Wular Lake

 

·        
Decrease in water levels and degradation of its
quality has led to decline in fish and water-bird diversity, shifting of
vegetational belts and drastic loss in productivity of some economically
important species. Invasive species have proliferated leading to decline in
native species particularly Schizotheorax sp. and Nelumbo.

 

·        
 Decline in resource base and limited opportunities for livelihood
diversification have led to poverty and reduced quality of life of communities
living around the lake and its catchments. The prevalence of poverty between
41% – 52% within these communities is quite high compared to the state average
of 3.91%.

 

·        
 Lack of well defined policy and regulatory mechanisms for integrated
management has led to cross sectoral conflicts and overall degradation of
wetland and its resources. 

 

2- Wullar Lake: Ecological and Socio-economical
Features:-

2.1 Wetland Catchments:

 

The catchments of Wullar Lake are essentially
linked with the entire Jhelum Basin,which extends to an area of 12,777 sq km
comprising 24 watersheds. The basin can be broadly classified into following
three sub- catchments:-

a)    
Wullar upstream sub -catchment comprising 14
watersheds of River Jhelum prior to

 its entry into Wular, extending
to 8,627 sq km.

 

b)    
Wullar direct sub catchment comprising 6 watersheds
directly draining into wular,

        
extending to 1,144 sq km.

 

c)    
Wullar downstream sub catchment comprising 3
watersheds of River Jhelum below

Wullar, extending to 3,006 sq km.

 

2.2  Forests account for 5,348 sq
km area of the River Jhelum catchment
.

 

The forests, being temperate, are dominated by
coniferous trees. Deodar (Cedrus deodara), Kail (Pinus
wallichiana___Blue Pine
), Silver Fir (Abies pindrow), Spruce or
Kachil (Picea smithiana) and Himalayan Birch (Betula utilis) are
the key species found in these forests. Excessive harvesting and over
exploitation of Deodar has led to its virtual elimination, and it presently
comprises less than 0.4% of the total area. The area under Deodar is presently
colonized by Kail, propagated through the Forest Department plantations in the
last two decades. Kail forms the principal species on the lower altitudes
whereas Fir dominates the higher reaches and shady ravines. The conifers form
the dominant component of the canopy throughout except in certain moist patches
where deciduous species viz; walnut, ash, maple and bird cherry mixed with
medicinal and aromatic plants occur in abundance. The tree growth ends with
Birch and Junipers. Alpine and sub-alpine pastures fringe the tree line at
higher altitudes.

 

2.3   Agriculture and Horticulture
Account for 38% of the basin area
.

Rice is the primary food crop of the basin and is
grown /cultivated in 35% of the gross cultivated area. There is a single
cropping pattern within the entire basin. The other important crops grown in
the valley include oilseeds, mainly mustard and pulses. Horticulture accounts
for 18% of the gross cropped area and is the mainstay of the economy of the
state. The total area under horticulture within the basin extends to 1,749 sq
km, of which 65% is under fresh fruits primarily apple and rest under dry
fruits (walnut and almonds).Maize, the staple food of Gujjers and Bakerwals is
cultivated in the hills and accounts for 26% of the area. Maize is a kharif
crop sown during May – June and is harvested in September – October. The rich
harvest of the crop is mainly based on application of heavy doses of animal
fertilizer.

2.4 The Jhelum
Basin is inhabited by 5.4 million people living within its 34 towns and 2846
villages
.

     The population concentration
is within the valley, which accounts for 84% of the total population, with the
rest sparsely distributed within the hills. Some important villages are
Hatlung, Magripora, Watlab, Zirimarg, Khuwad, Kunis, Kanibatti, Bandipora,
Kanilbagh, Ashtingo, Laherwalpora, Nadihal, Kalhum, Malangam, Qazipora, Gurore,
Hauntlung, Saderkut, Kalwitpora, Aargam, Hajin, Bahshibal Mahdkumyari,
Shahgung, Gundjehangir, Ningli, Haritor, Tarzoo, etc.

3- REVISION OF COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT ACTION PLAN
(CMAP)

 FOR WULLAR
LAKE:-

 3.1 Pursuant to directions of the Administrative
Department issued vide its No. FST/Plan-3/2005/II dated 29-03-2011, the revised
action plan for Wullar lake is now trimmed down to Rs. 120 crores for 4-years,
with an annual ceiling of Rs. 30 crores . A Revised Management Action Plan
(RMAP)
for Rs.120 Crores for a period of 4-years commencing from
2011-12 focusing on exact physical and financial targets has been framed in the
shape of this document. Detailed methodology and description of each physical
component is given in the CMAP.

  3.2   As per the
CMAP, r
ealizing the inter-connectivity of the wetland
regimes with the river flows, river basin approach needs to be adopted for
management planning for Wullar Lake. This requires treatment of the entire
catchment of river Jhelum for control of soil erosion and regulation of flow
regimes. However, the direct catchments need to be undertaken on a priority
basis considering the present limited scope of the revised project.

 

  3.3 The direct catchment extending to
1,144 sq km comprises 6 watersheds. Madhumati and Erin watersheds located on
the northern periphery of Wullar, account for 32% and 20% of the catchment area
respectively. Madumati or Bod Kol as it is called in the higher reaches rises
from the northern slopes of Harmukh glacier with its feeder streams spread over
vast areas between Nagmarg in the west and Sarbal Nag in the east. It is a
closed valley till village Bonakut where it spreads laterally into an alluvial
triangle where a number of villages and hamlets have settled. Vija Nar and
Harpat Nar join Bok Kol at Panar. Madhumati drains into Wular near Dacchigam
passing through Kalusa Bridge. Erin catchment is contiguous to Madhumati on its
northern side. The nullah is formed from the drainage of Shir Sar and Sukha Sar
draining through Chitrar Nala, Titwan Kain Nullah, Kubnai Nar which meet at
Isrur tar to form Erin. Erin watershed can be further delineated into 5 sub
watersheds and 33 micro-watersheds. Similarly, Madumati watershed can be
classified into 5 sub-watersheds and 43 micro-watersheds.

 

The southern tip of Wullar is enclosed by Ningli
and Gundar watersheds. Ningli drains highly erodible Karewas whereas Gundar
watersheds are influenced by the drainages of Tangmarg and Apharwath, the
famous alpine pastures of Kashmir. The lake is flanked on the left and right by
a series of short and flashy drains. The western flank drainage forms the
Wullar 1 watershed, whereas Wullar 2 is formed of the right bank drainage.
Wullar 1 is separated from Pohru catchment by a ridge , and is also called the
Zaingeer illaqa , after the name of an old irrigation canal that drains the
irrigated agricultural lands of the watershed. Wullar 2 is drained by Gurthajan
Nar, Rang Nar, Kol Nar, Bod Nar, Gujjar Nar and Dudh Nar. These drains form
extensive marshes on both sides of River Jhelum and play an important role in
governing hydrological regimes,                   

 apart from
sustaining rich biodiversity. Wullar 1 and 2 watersheds can be further
classified into 4 and 5 watersheds and 20 and 13 micro-watersheds respectively.
Micro watershed level delineation map of the four of the six watersheds based
on the drainage map of the area is presented as Map 2.3. The land use of direct
catchment is dominated by forests which account for 39% of the overall area.
Agriculture and horticulture account for 30% and 10% of the overall area
respectively. Pastures account for 8% of the total area. Eleven percent and
three percent of the watershed area is under glaciers and high altitude lakes.

 

  3.4  Adopting New Guidelines
of management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands, this  management 
plan, which is a miniature form of the comprehensive management plan
earlier devised for over Rs.386 Crores and now restricted for an outlay of
Rs.120 Crores for 4-years seeks a balance between ecosystem conservation and
livelihood security to the communities. It also seeks to ensure planning and
implementation through an effective institutional mechanism to harmonize
planning at various levels with participation of all concerned stakeholders to
achieve the objectives of integrated conservation and wise use. However,
keeping in view the urgency of activities under land and water management
component, specific thrust has been proposed under activities viz Survey and
Demarcation
, conservation and Water-management. Under these components an
allocation of more than 90% has been earmarked for effective and immediate
results. This activity will enhance the water holding capacity of the Lake and
its feeder waterways / channels and also slow down the silting by treatment of
catchments by different interventions of small engineering works associated
with suitable soil and water conservation measures. Specific projects have been
developed for proposed development and conservation of the lake and connected
watersheds and catchment areas. Emphasis has been laid on the Catchment
Conservation where-under a net allocation of Rs.111.49 Crores has been proposed
for eco-restoration works and integrated conservation operations on
micro-watershed management basis.

 

 3.5 The implementation of the Revised
Management Action Plan (RMAP) would by and large lead to the following
benefits:-

 

Ecological:

·        
Reduction in overall soil loss from degraded
watersheds through enhancement of dense forest cover, reduction in area under
degraded pastures and erosion enhancing agro- practices prevalent in catchment
area and reducing harvest of fuel wood.

 

·        
 Rejuvenation of hydrological functions of Wular Lake through enhancement
its present water holding capacity and restoration of hydrological connectivity
to the marshes.

 

·        
Water quality improvement of lake’s water through
management of sewage and sewerage from adjoining settlements through scientific
techniques.

 

·        
 Allocation of water for human and ecological purposes through
formulation and operationaliszation of stakeholder- endorsed water management
plan.

 

·        
Enhancement of water bird population through
control of poaching, strengthening of existing protected area network and
habitat improvement.

 

·        
Optimization of economically important plant
species through water level enhancement

 

·        
 Control of invasive species through effective flushing of lake.

 

Socio-economic:

·        
 Enhanced availability of small timber, firewood and leaf fodder to hill
households through restocking of degraded forests and agro- forestry operations
in croplands/ homesteads.

 

·        
 Enhanced availability of fuel-wood to lakeshore households through
development of village woodlots.

 

·        
 Reduced fuel-wood consumption through usage of fuel saving hearths by
hill and lakeshore households.

 

·        
 Enhancement of annual capture fisheries production and culture fish
yield leading to an increase in annual income for fishermen households.

 

·        
 Community led management of lake fisheries and aquatic vegetation
resources through establishment and operationalization of fish-marketing
cooperatives.

 

·        
 Enhanced access to fisheries infrastructure (landing, storage and
processing facilities) to fisherman households through strengthening of landing
centers and creation of fish processing and value addition units around Wullar
Lake.

 

·        
 Enhanced income of hill and, lakeshore households per annum through
operationalization of micro- enterprise (based on sustainable use of locally
available natural resources).

 

·        
 Improved quality of life of a large number of dependent households
through access to proper sanitation and safe drinking water facilities.

 

·        
Opportunities of livelihood diversification income
generation to lakeshore households through development of eco-tourism
facilities.

 

Institutional:

·        
 Establishment of an integrated policy framework for conservation and
development of Wullar and associated wetlands/water-bodies.

 

·        
 Establishment of separate and accountable Wullar Lake Conservation &
Development Authority (WLCDA) for conservation and management of Wullar lake.

 

·        
Enhanced awareness of decision- makers and
stakeholders on values functions and attributes of Wullar lake.

 

·        
 Enhanced technical and managerial capacity of WLCDA, Government agencies
and communities to implement wetland conservation and management interventions
as envisaged in this Plan.

 

·        
 Establishment of monitoring mechanisms for implementation of the Revised
Management Action Plan (RMAP)(2011-12 to 2014-15).

 

·        
Establishment of Hydro-biological and GIS field
laboratories (or alternatively outsource the requisite hi-tech research /survey
parameters to the State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) and the Department of
Environment & Remote Sensing (DERS) for effective monitoring.

 

   3.6 The RMAP for Wullar lake is a summarized version of the
Comprehensive Management Action Plan (CMAP) for Wullar and is mainly comprised
of physical and financial projections year-wise and component-wise. The format
of the physical parameters has been drawn from the original CMAP which have
been re-cast so as to match the available allocations and latest rates
structure as per the approved outlay of Rs.120 Crore    for four years from 2011-12 to 2014-15.
Whereas, for detailed methodology and   description of each physical component and area
specific proposed   physical targets (as
per the projections made in the RMAP), the WLCDA executives shall have to refer
to the CMAP on a regular basis for guidance, this RMAP will be the reference
document only as far as physical and financial targets have been fixed component-wise
and year-wise.

 

4-SUMMARY OF THE RMAP:-

 An abstract
of the proposed physical management interventions as per recommendations made
in the CMAP is given as follows:-

 

4.1 Land and Water
Management:-

   a)
Catchment Conservation:

·        
Identification and prioritization of critical
micro-watersheds based on assessment of land use, land cover and slope
characteristics.

 

·        
 Suggest measures for treatment of prioritized micro-watersheds to
control soil erosion and regulate flow regimes through biological, limited
engineering and other appropriate measures.

 

·        
Propose measures for management of high altitude
pastures to control soil erosion.

 

·        
Identify alternate sources of energy to reduce
pressure on forests.

 

   b)
Integrated Water Management:-

·        
Propose measures for enhancement of water holding
capacity of the lake based on assessment of water and sediment balance.

 

·        
 Develop strategies for rejuvenation of existing wetlands within
floodplains of Wullar to mitigate floods.

 

·        
 Develop action plan for restoration of area under willow plantation and
other encroachments.

 

·        
 Suggest measures for improvisation of water quality through provisions
of adequate sanitary facilities, solid waste management, sewerage treatment
including use of wetland mediated techniques.

 

·        
Formulate water management plan considering human
and ecological demands.

 

4.2 Institutional
Development and Capacity Building:

·        
 Propose an institutional mechanism for rationalizing and harmonizing
planning and management practices to achieve integrated conservation and
management of the lake.

 

·        
 Develop an effective monitoring and evaluation framework to ensure
integrated conservation of the lake and livelihood improvement of dependent
communities.

 

·        
 Develop an action plan for communication, education and public awareness
on values and functions of the lake and need for its conservation and
sustainable use.

 

4.3 Constitution of technical committee on Wullar Lake.

Soon after CMAP was submitted to Govt. of India lot
of clarifications were sought by them which were replied from time to time
through protracted correspondence. However to examine such observations from
technical side Govt. of J&K constituted a committee to revisit the
CMAP  vide order No:- 38-FST of 2010 and
220-FST of 2010. The committee comprising of scientists and senior forest
executives had been asked to comment on observations made by the G.O.I on CMAP
and provide general recommendations for its effective implementation. Main
recommendations of the committee had been:-

4.4 Removal of Willow plantations

            Committee
was of the collective opinion that removal of willow plantations (about 21 lac
No’s) from within lake was necessary to achieve hydrological and ecological
restoration of lake. However committee had recommended to remove them in phased
manner during period of least inundation to cause minimum impact on water
regime.

 4.5 Lake De-siltation.

            Committee was of opinion that
selective dredging in phased manner would be critical to restoration of
hydrological regime of lake.

 Institutional Arrangement

            Committee
stressed on need for appropriate institutional development to ensure effective
implementation of CMAP.

5.1 Action taken on
recommendations of the committee:

            The
state adopted the recommendations of the technical committee and submitted
report to the G.O.I. Who agreed to provide Rs 120.00 crores for implementation
of the project under the 13th FCA from year 2011-12 to be phased out for four
years with budgetary allocation of Rs. 30.00 crores for each year.

5.2 Establishment of
Wullar Conservation and Management Authority.

            Immediately
on receipt of budgetary allocations, steps were taken to get the Authority
established for execution of CMAP. Deciding about the mode of implementation of
project in Departmental/Authority mode took quite some time and it was only in
the year 2012 that formal notification 
was issued in the shape of SRO for establishment of Wullar Conservation
and Management Authority. (Reference  SRO: 314 dated:- 26-09-2012)The authority is
now in place with  Hon’ble Minister for
Forests Environment and Ecology as its Chairman with Officer of the rank of
Chief Conservator of Forests as its Chief Executive Director.

 

 

5.3 Revised Plan for
implementation of the CMAP.

            With
allocations for implementation of the project getting restricted for the time
being to Rs. 120.00 crores, work components under CMAP were revised and
Management Action Plan was drawn as under:-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table-1

 Component

As Per Comprehensive

Management Action Plan

(Rs in Crores)

As Per

Revised Plan

Under 13th FCA

(Rs in Crores)

Land and Water Management

319.53

 

118.05

Survey & Demarcation

2.25

 

2.25

 

Catchment   Conservation

37.32

 

24.00

 

 Water Management

279.96

 

91.80

 

Bio-diversity Conservation

13.72

 

0.00

Eco-tourism Development

11.45

 

0.00

Sustainable Resource Dev. & Livelihood Improvement

25.79

 

0.00

Institutional Development

15.90

 

1.95

Total:

386.39

 

120.00

 

            The
Revised Management Action Plan was approved by the High Level Monitoring Committee
(HLMC) headed by the Chief Secretary of the State for an amount of Rs. 120.00
Crores under 13th FCA  and is
presently under execution w.e.f. 2011-12 for 4-years. An amount of Rs.60.00
Crores only has been released under 13th FCA upto ending 2014-15. Total
expenditure ending March’2015 is Rs. 3165.47 lacs.  The remaining un-spent amount of Rs. 28.345
Crores was revalidated for      2015-16
vide Govt. Order No.  244-FST of 2015 dt 9-9-2015.

           


S.No

COMPONENT

Total Amount

Sanctioned & released

As I & II

Installment

Expenditure over the Years

Funds Utilized till ending March 2014.

Funds

Utilized

During

2014-15

Ending

03/2015

Exp. During 2015-16

Upto

Dec

2015

Cumulative Expenditure

 from

2011-12

To

12/2015

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

Land and Water Management

 

 

 

01

Survey and Demarcation

225.00

61.63

22.04

19.64

103.31

10.39

0.05

1.1870

02

Catchment Conservation

1380.00

265.69

246.04

200.71

712.44

404.90

0.2945

11.3679

03

Water Management

4290.00

3.00

978.32

304.96

1286.28

582.25

5.3771

24.1624

04

Institutional Development

105.00

20.00

19.54

5.46

45.00

20.90

0.1546

0.8136

Grand Total:-

6000.00

350.32

1265.94

530.77

2147.03

1018.44

5.8762

37.5309

Table-2: Year-wise Financial Progress Against
Allotment of Rs.60.00 Crores:-

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXTENSION OF PROJECT FROM APRIL’2016 ONWARDS  & ITS FUTURE FUNDING:

As 13th FCA has already come to an end
and WUCMA needs the remaining funds to the tune of Rs. 60.00 crores for the
next two years (ie; 2016-17 & 2017-18) 
to complete the Revised Management Action Plan (RMAP) and financial
assistance to execute the Comprehensive Management Action Plan (CMAP)
formulated in 2007-08 (after its revision of financial projections as per
prevalent rates structure),  a detailed
review meeting of the WUCMA was convened by the Chief Secretary, J&K on 16th
Dec’2015 at Jammu in pursuance to notifications issued vide Administrative
Department’s office No. Dt. & No. Dt. The extract of minutes of the said
meeting circulated vide Administrative Deptt’s No. FST/Plan-08/2014  Dt. 30-12-2015 is given on page No. 12.





















Simultaneously, the Action Plan for remaining
amount of Rs 60.00 Crores meant for next two years (2016-17 & 2017-18) has
been formulated in pursuance to the Administrative Deptt’s letter No. Dt.wherein
the physical and financial targets have been projected as per the prevalent
rates structure within the approved ceilings. The differential amount as such
is proposed and projected to be meant out of some of the minor components which
need to be omitted as same will have no distinct impact on the overall
catchment conservation. 

 

ABSTRACT OF ACTION PLAN  (Phase-II)

FOR PROPOSED ALLOCATION OF RS. 60.00 CRORES

                       FOR 2016-17 & 2017-18:-                     (AMOUNT RS. IN CRORES)

 

                                                                                                            

S.NO.

COMPONENT

APPROVED

OUTLAY AS

 PER RMAP

FUNDS

RELEASED

UNDER 13TH FCA

FUNDS REQUIRED FOR 2016-17 &

 2017-18

 

 

 

 

 

1.    

 

SURVEY & DEMARCATION

2.25

2.25

2.    

 

CATCHMENT CONSERVATION

24.00

13.80

10.20

3.    

 

WATER MANAGEMENT

91.80

42.90

48.90

4.    

 

INSTITUTIONAL

DEVELOPMENT

1.95

1.05

0.90

 

TOTAL

120.00

60.00

60.00

 

1-CATCHMENT CONSERVATION

 The Action
Plan for 2016-17 & 2017-18 under Catchment Conservation has been framed by
incorporating the current approved tariff of the Forest Department valid for
afforestation works in Kashmir Region so as to make it workable. Whereas the
component- wise approved outlay of the 
Revised Management Action Plan has not been exceeded, however, the
differential amount to execute the major afforestation works has been met out
by deletion ( or corresponding reduction) of the targets given under  some minor components. Same will not have any distinct
impact on the catchment conservation works as physical targets under major
components of afforestation works have been kept intact and the
quantum(density) of afforestation works has been enhanced and brought at par
with the parameters applicable under plantation modules executed in Kashmir
under CAMPA works.

Wular
lake is situated 34 Km North-West  of
Srinagar at an altitude of 1530 Mts. The Lake is surrounded by high mountainous
ranges on north–eastern and north-western side which drain off their runoff
through various nallas, prominent being the Erin and Mudumati.

As
per DPR, the Catchment Conservation aims at the following objectives:

i)       
Identification and
prioritization of critical micro-watersheds based on assessment of land use,
land cover and slope characteristics.

ii)      
Suggest measures for
treatment of prioritized micro-watersheds to control soil erosion and regulate
flow regimes through biological, minor engineering and other appropriate
measures.

iii)    
Proper measures required
for management of high altitude pastures to control erosion.

iv)    
Indentify alternate
source of energy to reduce pressure on conventional fuel.

      As
per the DPR,  catchment area treatment
proposed is for direct catchment area comprising of 1144 Sq Km. The land-use of
direct catchment has been assessed as under :-

Ø  Forest
                              =        39%

Ø   Agriculture                     =        30%

Ø  Horticulture
                   =        10%

Ø  Pastures
                         =        8%

Ø  Glaciers
                                      =        11%

Ø  High
altitude lakes    =        3%.

In
the direct catchment area of Erin & Madhumati , the targets as per RMAP  and achievements made upto 12/2015  (and anticipated upto ending 3/2016) &
the targets  proposed for 2016-18 are as
follows:-

S.No.

COMPONENT

TARGETS

(As
per RMAP)

ACHIEVEMENTS

 

TARGETS

2016-18

 

 

 

Ending

03/2015

Ant.

From

4/2015 to 03/16

Cum.

Prog.

Anticipated

By 3/2016

16-17

17-18

Cum

1.

Prep.
Ops.

(Fencing)

1220
hectares

1131

Hects.

 

89

Hects

1220

Hectares

200

Hec

200

Hec

400

Hec

2.

Planting

(Afforestation)

1220

507

Hects

713

Hects

1220

Hects

200

Hects

200

Hects

400

Hects

3.

Aided
Regeneration

1000

Hects

550

Hects

550

Hects

102

Hects

224

Hects

326

hects

          

 

 Besides the above, some agro-forestry measures
are also undertaken for catchment conservation as per details given in the
preceding paragraphs and also  in the
annexures (1 ab).                            

           

 

Treatment of degraded forest
areas in the catchment  will  be carried out through following mixed  biological and small scale engineering
measures as per techno-feasibility and actual requirement in the field.

a)  Afforestration:

As
per RMAP, total target for Fencing 
(Preparatory Operations) and Planting(afforestation) is 1620 hectares in
Erin & Madhumati Catchment Areas of Bandipora Forest Division. Till
03/2015, an area of 1131 hectares has been fenced with barbed wire using either
triangular PCC fence-posts or even wooden fence posts which has suffered
extensive seasonal damage over the last two years. Under Planting operations,
an area of 503 hectares has been covered under afforestation whereby 3.87 lac
plants (conifers & broadleaved) have been planted out upto end of
March’2015( ie: @ 745 plants per hectare). During 2015-16, the remaining
planting target of 713 hectares will be completed as per approved norms and
rates structure applicable in Kashmir under CAMPA works. Accordingly, it is
proposed to cover remaining 713 hectares of catchment area by over 7.84 lac
plants (@ 1100 plants per hectare as per CAMPA norms in Kmr)(65% conifers + 35%
broadleaved species). The work is to be e-tendered and will be completed by
or before 31-3-2016 subject to timely approval of the re-appropriation
proposal.
Besides this, repairs/renovation of old damaged fence-lines
together with planting of over 55000 saplings(conifers & broadleaved species)
has been carried out during Nov-Dec’2015 as “Beating Up of the Casualities” (BUC
ops.).

The
physical targets of 400 hectares proposed for next two years ,ie; 2016-17 &
2017-18 (@ 200 hectares per year) have been framed as per the prevalent rates
structure applicable in the Forest Deptt in Kashmir for afforestation works. (Details
as per Annex- 01 ab).         

 

  b) Aided Regeneration:

    The
main objective of this activity is to augment the natural regeneration by
sowing of coniferous and broad leaved species of economic importance. As per
RMAP, an area of 1000 hectares of forest land in the catchment area is fixed as
physical target, out of which 550 hectares are recorded as treated upto
03/2015. The 346 hectares will be treated during 2016-17 & 2017-18 as per
present rates structure,  subject to
allotment of funds.

c)  Small
Scale Engineering Measures for Control of Soil Erosion & Landslides:

            These
measures are required for control of soil erosion, landslides and to arrest
flow of silt from the vulnerable micro-watersheds.

The following activities are
carried out :-

i)
Check Dams
: – (Drainage Line Treatment)                  

 Against a target of 66667 M3 DRSM
works and laying out of 2.00 lacs earth-filled gunny bags and 23572 M DRSM works in wire- crates (Gabions) ,  44941 CuMs of DRSM, 121400 earth-filled gunny
bags and 15313 Cums (2355 Crate Nos) are recorded as achieved  upto 03/2015. Physical & financial targets
as per RMAP for proposed 3rd & 4th installment are
reflected and recast as per the given statement (Annex-1 ab).

ii)  Land Slide Control Structures:-

228- Land slide control structures are proposed to be constructed to
control landslides especially in prioritized stone quarrying  areas facing intensive soil erosion. Out of
228 Structures targeted for 04 years,  96
structures only are recorded as achieved up to March-2015.

iii) Construction of Stream Bank Protection Spurs:-

          Under Stream bank protection spurs, 22568 M3
(in crates) shall be constructed as per the RMAP. Areas prone to severe soil erosion
will be tackled in the identified micro-watershed during this phase of project.
This will be supplement to the Gabion works. As per record,  15303 Cums (2354 No of Crates) have been
achieved up to March-2015.

iv)
Water Harvesting Structures:-

            362
No units of water harvesting structures will be constructed for enhancement of
moisture regime in the watersheds of Wular. 
These structures shall be further developed for small scale enterprises
as integrated farming (Horticulture, Agriculture and Fisheries etc.). No
physical or financial targets have been made so far in this regard.

B)
Management of High Altitude Pastures:

a)        Fodder& Forage
Production:-

As per RMAP,
an area of 595.00 hact and 13408 Cums will be undertaken during present project
period on rotation basis of 143 hact. per year. This would include closure of
area, plantation with forage and fodder spps (Trifolium pretense) (Red clover)
and Trifolium prepens (white clover) .

b)        Besides the above, Small scale engineering measures will be
undertaken  to augment the soil
conservation measures in such areas.

The
following interventions are proposed during project period.

          Check dams (Both in Dry rubble stone
and crate wire dams).

          Vegetative spurs.

          Stream bank protection.

          Gully Plugging.

            Achievements ending 03/2015 as recorded are as follows:
4480 Cums with 355 Crates achieved in full and 157 hacs gully plugging by way
of DRSM and Earthen Check Dams.

c) Grazing Management

            Management of Grazing is central to regeneration of
degraded pastures. The following interventions are proposed for management of
grazing.

Silvi Pasture
Development :-

            An
area of 516.5 hact. will be tackled with planting of fodder trees (Robinia,
Aesculus, Ash etc.) and sowing of fodder seeds in patches. Out of this, only 72
hacs has been achieved till 3/2015 as documented.

On Farm Fodder
Management:-

            An area, 482 hact. is proposed to be brought under this
activity with fodder  crops to be
introduced in crop rotation to boost  fodder production and promote stall feeding.
Out of this, 150 hacs is recorded as tackled up to 3/2015.

Veterinary Health
Support:-

            It is proposed to undertake promotion of cattle productivity
as an optional resource. Major activities will be green improvement and health
support through mobile dispensaries. No activities in this component have been
carried out till March-2015.

C)
Management of Horticulture and Dry Land Agriculture:-

a)        Agro Forestry:

            An
area of 100 hact. is proposed to be brought under this activity. Out of this
component, 100 hacs have been achieved in full till-March-2015 by way of free
distribution of 38950  plants of economic
importance  among the people in and
around Wullar lake as recorded.  

b)        Improved Management
of Homesteads
:

            There is a tremendous scope for enriching the homesteads
for enhanced production of useful biomass by introducing three storey vegetation
above ground including useful graft trees, shrubs, climbers and herbs
(medicinal plants) package of assorted seeds could be provided in households
along with technical input. This activity is proposed to be tied up with the
SKAUST which can promote the improved variety of seeds for different suitable
agricultural activities. An area of 481 hact. is proposed to be put under this
activity. Out of this, 181 hacs have been achieved up to March-2015 with 2646
vegetable seed kits recorded as distributed among the people living in the
Micro watersheds of Catchment area.

c)        Promotion of Sustainable Horticultural Practices:

            As
Horticulture within the rain-fed areas in Wular Catchment is very low
productive which promotes soil erosion due to erratic cultivation practices, It
is therefore envisaged to demonstrate suitable horticulture procedures in an
area of 670 hact. (demo- plots) where in-situ moisture conservation techniques
would be followed by laying V- shape ditches along the contours with planting
of trees on the up hill side in trenches. Out of this, 150 Hacs has been
achieved in 1st year with distribution of 71920 Fruit bearing plants
among the people living in the Catchment area and established 09 Nos of
Demonstration Plots with 11656 Fruit bearing plants planted over an area of
35.50 hacs as recorded.

 

d)        Alternate Source of
Energy
:

      i)    Development
of Village Wood Lots
:

            A
target of 367 hacs. is proposed to be undertaken under this activity on village
Panchayat lands for raising village woodlots to meet energy requirement of
villagers so as to reduce dependence on forests for fuel wood, fodder and small
timber. Out of this, 92 Hacs only have been achieved till March-2015 as per
records. During this activity, 03 Nos of Village Woodlots in 05 parts have been
established with 28200 Broad leaved species (Robinia, Ulmus and Hardy) as per
records.

  

 ii)     Promotion
of Smokeless Chulhas
:

            The
primary objective of this activity is to reduce pressure on forests through
efficient use of fuel wood. This also helps to reduce the health hazards  through reduction of smoke generated. A target
of 1040 smokeless chulhas is fixed in the identified Micro-watersheds. Training
will be provided to community groups for installation and maintenance of these
heaters. No progress has been made upto ending 3/2015.

iii) Introduction of Solar Lights & Heaters:-

            In
order to improve the living condition of the rural habitation residing in and
around the catchment areas, solar lanterns and other suitable devices will be
distributed among the deserving households which ultimately will reduce the
pressure on conventional forests for torchwood and fuel wood. A reasonable
amount has been earmarked for this activity in the programme. Under this
activity, 746 Solar Lanterns have been distributed in un-electrified villages
of District Bandipora up to March-2014. Further 704 Solar Lanterns and 100
Solar Home Lighting Systems were procured during 2014-15 and were stored in
IWDP H.O. at Rajbagh  for free
distribution but the whole consignment has been fully damaged due to
devastating  floods in Kashmir during the
month of September-2014.

 

ABSTRACT OF ACTION PLAN  (Physical & Financial)  UNDER

CATCHMENT CONSERVATION FOR 2016-17 &
2017-18   ENCLOSED
(ANNEXURE-01 a & b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2-WATER
MANAGEMENT (FOR LAKE CONSERVATION)

ENHANCEMENT
OF WATER HOLDING CAPACITY OF LAKE

As
per Revised Management Action Plan (RMAP) for Rs.  120 .00 Crores sanctioned
under the 13th FCA, mechanical dredging  is required to be undertaken as per the following targets:-

Location of areas to be dredged                      Area                          Volume

a) Willow Plantation Area                             0.5 sq km                        7.17 lac cum

b) Critically silted lake areas                        1.0 sq km                       12.85 lac cum

c)
Channels                                                 
0.15 sq.km                    
2.21 lac cum

However,
as per the total  amount of funds
released upto date  ( ie; Rs. 60.00
crores only) the physical  targets for
mechanical dredging have been fixed as follows:-

Location of areas to be dredged                      Area                              Volume

a) Willow Plantation Area                              0.11 sq km                          3.30 lac cum

b) Critically silted lake areas                         0.6995 sq km                       9.34 lac cum

c)
Channels                                                  
0.055 Sq.Kms                   
1.07 lac cum

(I)
Action Plan for Dredging Operations under Phase-II (2016-18) For Enhanching the
Water Holding Capacity of Wullar Lake  :

1)
Willow Plantation Areas :
A target of 5.3666 lac cum of lake bed
material is  proposed for two years to be
dredged out from  plantation areas after
removal of the willow trees from the lake’s basin at an estimated cost of
Rs.16.10 crores. The outturn thus accrued out of the removal of willow trees is
expected to generate a  revenue of over
Rs. 55-60 crores through auction.

2)
Critically Silted Lake Areas:
A target of 8.22432 lac cum of lake bed
material is proposed to be dredged out from the identified critically silted
areas of Wullar lake at an estimated cost of Rs.24.385 crores during 2016-18.

3)
Feeder Channels
: The associated waterways and watercourses will be treated to facilitate
better water circulation of water . For this purpose, the WUCMA has partly
carried out dredging operations in one of the major channels namely Naaz
Nallah  during first phase of the plan
(2011-12 to 2015-16) as per available resources. Against a total stretch of
5740 meters, the WUCMA has successfully completed dredging of Naaz nallah to
the extent of 1650 meters upto ending 12/2015 (by dredging out more than 0.75
lac cums of silt load). It is expected to achieve a net target of 3000 meters
of complete dredging of Naaz Nallah upto ending March’2016 subject to timely
availability of funds so as to facilitate opening of surface connectivity and
better hydrological connectivity. The remaining part of Naaz nallah (5740-3000
= 2240 meters) will be completed during phase-II.  A target of 1.21 lac cum has been proposed
under this activity to be completed in two years at an estimated cost of
Rs.3.63 Crores.

 

 

Achievements
under Water Management During Phase I (2011-12 to 2015-16) :

(I)  De-Silting & Dredging
Operations:

 Under “Enhancement of Water Holding
Capacity”
through dredging of Critically Silted areas, Plantation
areas, Feeder Channels & Bunds, against a total physical target of 10.54
lac cums
fixed for approved outlay
of 50% funds released so far under 13th FCA, the
achievement ending December” 2015 is 9.5892. lac cums.

 

(II) Equipment Augmentation:

Under the Revised
Management Action Plan an amount of Rs.15.05 crores was sanctioned for stipulated
targets in water management, the following equipment were to  be procured which would augment the existing
capacities of the WUCMA :

·        
Cut
suction dredger including slurry piping         
5 units

·        
Motorized
carriage tucks                                  
10 units

·        
Hydraulic
Excavators                                           3
units

·        
Multipurpose
maintenance machines                  2
units

·        
Weed
harvesters                                                
2 units

 

However, in the First Phase of the Plan (2011-15) against the two
Installments of funds received so far,  no such equipment was procured and similarly
in the second phase (2016-18) it is being recognized that procurement of cutter
suction dredger will not prove to be cost effective and therefore it is proposed
to defer the procurement of cutter suction dredger. It is proposed to purchase
two boats for facilitating the field work…. one wooden and one fiberglass motor
driven and for this activity an amount of Rs.15.00 lacs is proposed for
the purpose for the project period.

 

(III) Rejuvenation of
Associated Wetlands : Hydraulic Connectivity
of Marshes with Jhelum / Wular Lake:

 

Comprehensive
Management Action Plan (CMAP) envisages to improve the hydrological
connectivity of the existing marshes through improvement of major surface
courses of the associated marshes (Haritar Nallah for Rakh Haigam and Naz
Nallah for Rakh Ajas and Rakh Malgam) and catchment drainages (Bod Nar, Rang Nar,
Gujjar Nar & Dud Nar) based on detailed assessment of hydrological exchange
patterns.

 

  Area to be de-silted                                                                                    Length

a) Naz Nallah – connecting Rakh Malgam
and Rakh Ajas             =             
5740 m

b) Haritar Nallah – connecting Rakh Haigam
and Naugam marsh =              3600 m

 

Under Revised Management
Action Plan an amount of Rs.2.70 crores was earmarked for this activity and
under the same programme in the first phase it is anticipated that an amount of
Rs.1.95 crores shall be utilized for dredging of remaining portion of the Naaz
Nallah and it is likely that in the first phase a total stretch of 3000 mtrs
shall be completely dredged out.. 
Remaining portion of Naaz nallah (2740 mtrs) is proposed to be treated
during Phase-II (2016-18) as per details given under para- (I) 3 above.

 

 

(IV)
 Water Quality Improvement:

Pollution Abatement Programme Along the
Course of River Jehlum & Wullar Lake:

The CMAP envisages Implementation
of River Jhelum Conservation Plan with additional scope incorporated to cover
Bijbehara, Awantipora, Pampore, Sumbal and Hajan towns  to be prioritized. The primary activities to
be carried out includes

 Interception
and treatment of sewage before its outfall in River Jhelum through
construction of Sewage Treatment Plants.This activity was also approved  in the Revised Management Action Plan,
However, in absence of drainage system in place in  District Bandipora, setting up of STP was
deferred for the time being.

 

Under the  Action Plan  for Phase-II ,monitoring of water quality by
an authorized and statutory body shall be undertaken  and Rs.0.45 crores have been proposed for
this activity. Construction of Septage Plants shall also be explored under this
activity during the plan period which will be in addition to other required
effective measures to prevent point source of pollution to the Wullar lake.

 

No activity was undertaken
under this activity during the Phase I of the Plan.

(V) Solid
Waste Management:
Comprehensive Management
Action Plan indicates systematic collection and disposal of solid waste and
involves construction of waste collection centers at common locations, with
segregated compartments for recyclable and non recyclable wastes. Specially
designed carriages to be operated through non-governmental organizations /
community based organizations for waste collection from individual households.
During the year 2013-14 & 2014-15 u
nder
“Community Based Solid Waste Management” for towns and
villages, Municipal Committee Bandipora was supplemented by sponsoring
procurement of Hoopers and Dust Bins through District Development Commissioner
Bandipora. Rs. 39.14 lacs has been provided by this authority to the
District Development Commissioner Bandipora for the purpose which has been
spent in full. Expenditure details are awaited from D.C. Bandipore against Rs.42.00
lacs
released as second installment in favour of the District Development
Commissioner Bandipore meant for Municipal Committee Bandipore. The MC
Bandipora has enhanced its capacity against the financial assistance provided
to it by the WUCMA  as follows:

•        
Purchase
of TATA1109 cabin chassis vehicle.

•        
Purchase
of refuse compactor of capacity 7 cubic meter

•        
Purchase
of 4 Vehicles fitted with hydraulically operated hoopers.

·        
Purchase
of compact bins.

·        
Purchase
of JCB’s 

 

(VI)  Low cost sanitation in
peripheral villages

Comprehensive
Management Action Plan envisages that presently 15% of 21,516 households
residing in the 44 villages situated on Wular periphery towards north and
eastern sides have access to adequate sanitation facilities. It was therefore
proposed that sewage generated from rest of the villages without sanitation
facilities and scattered in the Madhumati and Erin catchment area shall be
intercepted using low cost sanitation units as per WHO design comprising of
twin leaching pits with pour flush latrine. It has been calculated that about
18,600 low cost sanitation units with leaching composting pit will be required
for managing domestic sewage for managing the domestic sewage.

During
the Phase-I of the Plan, two types of Low Cost Sanitations (Type-A) were designed
and constructed at below mentioned locations.

Type A  Low cost sanitation units are meant for
community installations in the catchment and on the lake fringe villages

Achievement under Phase I: 10
such units have been established at :

i)Ningli
Ghat,  ii)Bakhshibal, iii)S.K.Pyeen
iv)Laherwal ghat  v)Potshahi and 5 combo
unit constructed at Garoora Village.

Type B  Low cost sanitation units
are meant for individual households on the fringes of the lake who are resorting
to open defecation  with leaching pits
and sokage system in place

Achievement under Phase I:   25 such units are likely to be set in place
by end of March 2016 (subject to availability of funds).

It
is proposed to carry forward such an activity during the phase -II of the Plan
as well.

 

(VII) Control of diffused pollution through wetland technology:

CMAP envisages the
goal of using wastewater treatment through wetland mediated technologies is for
the removal of contaminants from the water in order to decrease the possibility
of detrimental impacts on humans and aquatic ecosystem. Many contaminants,
including a wide variety of organic compounds and metals are toxic to humans
and other organisms. Other types of contaminants are not toxic, but
nevertheless pose an indirect threat to human well-being. For example, loading
of nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus) result in water quality
deterioration, excessive growth of obnoxious algae and unwanted aquatic
vegetation thereby diminishing the recreational, economic and aesthetic values
of aquatic ecosystems.

 

CMAP proposes to
construct treatment wetlands in 10 villages in the southern lake periphery
(presently discharging 1.03 MLD of sewage into the lake) to control diffused
sources of pollution. Based on population, three types of models are proposed:

 

Design Category

Population Size

Area requirement

Category A

200 HH

1,880 sq m

Category B

350 HH

3,290 sq m

Category
C

900 HH

8,460
sq m

 

 

 

 


A pre treatment tank
will be constructed before allowing sewage to enter into the constructed
wetland systems. Each unit will comprise three different compartments with
different types of aquatic vegetation based on their nutrient uptake capacity.
Cross section of Constructed wetland is given below:

Achievement
under Phase I :
Three such wetlands are likely to be
completed by end of March,2016 and this activity is proposed to be carried
along in the second Phase as well. It is proposed to construct 15 such wetlands
during the plan period at an estimated cost of Rs.0.87 Crores by the end of
March’2018.

 

(VIII) Water
allocation for Human and Ecological Purposes.

 Environmental Flow Assessment

 The CMAP envisages to carry out the  Environmental Flow Assessment  to define the water requirement for ensuring
functions and processes of the wetlands of River Jhelum Basin while optimizing
allocation for other development purposes including agriculture, hydropower and
domestic water supply. The Flow Assessment will focus on defining water
allocation scenarios based on detailed assessment of flow regimes of River
Jhelum and its tributaries, and linkage of flow regimes with various wetland
functions. Water requirement for various uses will be projected based on which
optimal allocation scenarios will be arrived at.

 

Accordingly,
the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), GOI
assigned
the task to the experts from AHEC, IIT
Roorkee
 who
have undertaken the site visits of Wular Lake and have submitted the status of
implementation of the project in accordance with the approved action plan and
also have been  suggesting necessary
modifications, if any. The experts in their reports have among various other
recommendations suggested as follows:-

            “To
carry out studies on hydrological aspects including water budget, bathymetry
and topographical surveys of the lake, assessment of sediment erosion from
catchment of Wular Lake, river Jhelum and upcoming Kishenganga hydro power
project, rate of sediment deposition in the Wular lake at different sites and
basin morphology, water quality (physical, chemical) at different locations in
different months, surveys and identification of disposal sites for dredged
sediment and weed harvested from the lake, impact of tail water flows from
upcoming Kishenganga hydro power project into Wular lake through Madhumati
river on (a) Water budget, (b) sediment management and (c) aquatic life”.

 

In pursuance to the recommendations of the
experts of the  IIT Roorkee, the WUCMA
has taken up matter with the  NIT
Srinagar for conducting above studies, Some of the aspects shall be completed
in the first Phase of the Plan by the end of March,2016 and remaining studies
shall also be taken up during the second phase to develop a sound base line
data  for effective and scientific management
of the Lake.

    
For effective and constant monitoring purpose, it is proposed to
establish a full-fledged Monitoring & Evaluation Centre at Saderkute Payeen
near famous Vintage Park overlooking the Wular lake. For this purpose, adequate
infra-structure will be established at the site where land is available to the
WUCMA  for executive and engineering
staff during phase-II (2016-18) and for this purpose an outlay of Rs. 1.50
Crores has been proposed under Monitoring & Evaluation (Water Management).  

Copy of detailed physical
and financial targets proposed under Water Management Component of the Action
Plan (as per RMAP) is annexed (Annexures-02 )(i to iii ).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3-INSTITUTIONAL  DEVELOPMENT

 

As per CMAP/RMAP, it is envisaged that the Authority
will initiate necessary steps for the following tasks for effective
implementation of the conservation & management plan:-

 

_ Establishment of an integrated policy framework for
conservation and

development
of Wular and associated wetlands.

_ Establishment of separate and accountable funding
mechanism for

conservation
and management of Wular

_ Enhanced awareness of decision makers and stakeholders
on values,

functions
and attributes of Wular

_ Enhanced technical and managerial capacity of the Authority

and
communities  to implement wetland
conservation and

management
initiatives effectively.

_ Establishment of monitoring mechanisms for
implementation of Action

Plan.

_ Establishment of Hydrobiological and GIS laboratories.

 

 

As per approved RMAP for Rs. 120.00 Crores, the
budgetary allocation under the Institutional Development is  given as follows:-s

 

                                                                                                      

                                                                                                                 
 (Rs. In Crores)

S.NO.

Component

APPROVED

OUTLAY AS PER RMAP

AMOUNT RELEASED UNDER 13TH FCA

UPTO 2015-16

BALANCE AMOUNT REQUIRED FOR PHASE-II

2016-17 & 2017-18

 

 

 

 

2016-17

2017-18

Total

1.

Institutional

Development

1.95

1.05

0.45

0.45

0.90

 

 

(Detailed Action Plan under
Institutional Development   for 2016-17 & 2016-17 is given under page-27
as Annex-03.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annexure-03

 

ACTION
PLAN UNDER INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR PHASE-II

(2016-18)

 

                                                                                              
(Rupees in Crores)

S.NO.

Component

&

Activities

OUTLAY

TARGETS FOR

2016-17 &
2017-18

 

 

 

2016-17

2017-18

TOTAL

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.

Institutional

Development

0.90

0.45

0.45

0.90

1.1

Establishment of
WUCMA

 

 

 

 

 

Adm. Costs

 

0.070

0.10

0.17

 

Op. Costs

 

0.080

0.060

0.14

 

Un-foreseen/

Contingencies

 

0.050

0.050

0.10

 

Sub-Total (1.1)

 

0.20

0.21

0.41

1.2

Capacity Building

 

 

 

 

 

Trng/Res./Travel

 

0.01

0.01

0.02

 

Infra-structure

Development

 

0.05

0.03

0.08

 

Sub-Total(1.2)

 

0.06

0.04

0.10

1.3

Communication & Extension

 

 

 

 

 

Eco-conferences/

Nature
Camps /Env.Days & Events/ Films/Documentaries/

Audio-visuals/
Publications/ Signages/

Consultancies,
etc

 

0.06

0.06

0.12

 

Sub-Total(1.3)

 

0.06

0.06

0.12

1.4

Monitoring &

Evaluation

 

 

 

 

 

Est.
of Labs/ Mobile Labs/Testing Centres

 

0.01

0.01

0.02

 

Equipment/Machinery/

Vehicles

 

0.07

0.07

0.14

 

Monitoring/
Audits  / sInspections/Surveys &
Maintenance of Demarcation BPs.

 

0.05

0.06

0.11

 

Sub-Total(1.4)

 

0.13

0.14

0.27

 

TOTAL (1)

 

0.45

0.45

0.90